Application to tabular/structured data

Tabular data

tabular contains all the necessary classes to deal with tabular data, across two modules:

To create a model, you'll need to use models.tabular. See below for an end-to-end example using all these modules.

Preprocessing tabular data

First, let's import everything we need for the tabular application.

from fastai.tabular import * 

Tabular data usually comes in the form of a delimited file (such as .csv) containing variables of different kinds: text/category, numbers, and perhaps some missing values. The example we'll work with in this section is a sample of the adult dataset which has some census information on individuals. We'll use it to train a model to predict whether salary is greater than \$50k or not.

path = untar_data(URLs.ADULT_SAMPLE)
df = pd.read_csv(path/'adult.csv')
age workclass fnlwgt education education-num marital-status occupation relationship race sex capital-gain capital-loss hours-per-week native-country salary
0 49 Private 101320 Assoc-acdm 12.0 Married-civ-spouse NaN Wife White Female 0 1902 40 United-States >=50k
1 44 Private 236746 Masters 14.0 Divorced Exec-managerial Not-in-family White Male 10520 0 45 United-States >=50k
2 38 Private 96185 HS-grad NaN Divorced NaN Unmarried Black Female 0 0 32 United-States <50k
3 38 Self-emp-inc 112847 Prof-school 15.0 Married-civ-spouse Prof-specialty Husband Asian-Pac-Islander Male 0 0 40 United-States >=50k
4 42 Self-emp-not-inc 82297 7th-8th NaN Married-civ-spouse Other-service Wife Black Female 0 0 50 United-States <50k

Here all the information that will form our input is in the 14 first columns, and the dependent variable is the last column. We will split our input between two types of variables: categorical and continuous.

  • Categorical variables will be replaced by a category - a unique id that identifies them - before they are passed through an embedding layer.
  • Continuous variables will be normalized and then directly fed to the model.

Another thing we need to handle are the missing values: our model isn't going to like receiving NaNs so we should remove them in a smart way. All of this preprocessing is done by TabularTransform objects and TabularDataset.

We can define a bunch of Transforms that will be applied to our variables. Here we transform all categorical variables into categories. We also replace missing values for continuous variables by the median column value and normalize those.

procs = [FillMissing, Categorify, Normalize]

To split our data into training and validation sets, we use valid indexes

valid_idx = range(len(df)-2000, len(df))

Then let's manually split our variables into categorical and continuous variables (we can ignore the dependent variable at this stage). fastai will assume all variables that aren't dependent or categorical are continuous, unless we explicitly pass a list to the cont_names parameter when constructing our DataBunch.

dep_var = 'salary'
cat_names = ['workclass', 'education', 'marital-status', 'occupation', 'relationship', 'race', 'sex', 'native-country']

Now we're ready to pass this information to TabularDataBunch.from_df to create the DataBunch that we'll use for training.

data = TabularDataBunch.from_df(path, df, dep_var, valid_idx=valid_idx, procs=procs, cat_names=cat_names)
print(data.train_ds.cont_names)  # `cont_names` defaults to: set(df)-set(cat_names)-{dep_var}
['capital-gain', 'fnlwgt', 'hours-per-week', 'capital-loss', 'education-num', 'age']

We can grab a mini-batch of data and take a look (note that to_np here converts from pytorch tensor to numpy):

(cat_x,cont_x),y = next(iter(data.train_dl))
for o in (cat_x, cont_x, y): print(to_np(o[:5]))
[[ 5  8  3 13  1  5  2 40  1]
 [ 5 12  3  5  1  3  2 40  1]
 [ 1  2  3  1  1  5  2 40  1]
 [ 5 12  3  4  1  5  2 40  1]
 [ 7 12  3  5  1  5  2 40  1]]
[[ 0.886658 -1.382477 -0.035789 -0.216787  0.753904  0.393667]
 [-0.145922 -0.367974  1.176085  4.469497 -0.421569  0.833029]
 [-0.145922 -1.454197 -2.621122 -0.216787 -1.205218  2.07789 ]
 [-0.145922  0.135373 -0.035789 -0.216787 -0.421569  0.173985]
 [-0.145922 -0.224013 -0.035789 -0.216787 -0.421569  2.151118]]
[1 1 0 0 1]

After being processed in TabularDataset, the categorical variables are replaced by ids and the continuous variables are normalized. The codes corresponding to categorical variables are all put together, as are all the continuous variables.

Defining a model

Once we have our data ready in a DataBunch, we just need to create a model to then define a Learner and start training. The fastai library has a flexible and powerful TabularModel in models.tabular. To use that function, we just need to specify the embedding sizes for each of our categorical variables.

learn = tabular_learner(data, layers=[200,100], emb_szs={'native-country': 10}, metrics=accuracy)
learn.fit_one_cycle(1, 1e-2)
epoch train_loss valid_loss accuracy time
0 0.321540 0.319863 0.844000 00:04

As usual, we can use the Learner.predict method to get predictions. In this case, we need to pass the row of a dataframe that has the same names of categorical and continuous variables as our training or validation dataframe.

(Category >=50k, tensor(1), tensor([0.1864, 0.8136]))